What should a person living in an unfavorable ecological zone know?
One of the leading problems of the XXI century was the relationship between man and nature. In recent decades, the environment has undergone great changes. Technical progress constantly strikes all living things, and the consequences of technological accidents and disasters even of previous years still have consequences.
What are the causes of environmental disasters?
The causes of environmental disasters and environmental problems are as follows:
- climate change on Earth;
- air pollution;
- ozone depletion;
- pollution of the oceans;
- depletion of water supplies;
- unprocessed waste;
- soil degradation;
- rapid technical progress, etc.
Below we will look at global statistics, environmental problems in Russia and Ukraine, technological accidents of recent years, as well as the rules of human behavior in adverse environmental zones.
What does world statistics mean?
Based on the latest global statistics, 280,000 harmful substances are contained in vehicle emissions.
Every year, 255,000 people die in Europe due to diseases caused by large amounts of exhaust gases.
The average life expectancy in the metropolis is reduced by 4 years compared with the villagers.
Every year, 9 million tons of waste and from 5 to 10 million tons of oil enter the World Ocean, which since 2000 has led to an increase in the acidity of water 10 times.
Over the past 100 years, the amount of vitamins and trace elements in fruits and vegetables has been significantly reduced due to the nitrates they contain.
Every eighth person is deprived of the opportunity to drink clean drinking water, which leads to diseases transmitted through unfiltered liquid.
In 20 years, 17,000 species of plants and animals have disappeared in Europe, and the Earth itself loses 30,000 living organisms every year.
This is only a small part of statistical data and environmental problems, which are among the global problems of the 21st century.
Ecological problems in Russia
With the onset of the economic crisis, Russia had to save more on environmental costs.But despite the reduction in the chemical industry and the production of non-ferrous metallurgy by an average of 22%, environmental problems have not decreased, since emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere have decreased only by 11%.
Environmental problems, including the cutting of forests in the extraction of coal and oil, deprive the surrounding atmosphere of oxygen sources. The lack of vegetation has led to the fact that a large amount of carbon dioxide and other chemicals are released into the air, which cause acid rain.
The exploitation of water resources is carried out thoughtlessly and without control over their consumption. The owners of industrial enterprises do not install cleaning systems, and a large amount of metals and toxic chemicals flows into reservoirs.
In addition, oil is a central source of water pollution. This environmental problem is associated with its production, transportation, accidents on shipping, as a result of which oil enters the water. The last pollution occurred in 2016, when a large amount of oil products got into the river Tosna.
The situation with domestic waste in the country remains an urgent environmental problem.In Russia, only 3-4% of the total garbage is recycled. To date, the problem of ecology in the form of toxic waste is leading, since the waste materials occupy vast areas for storage.
Currently, measures are being taken to improve the environmental situation and solve environmental problems in such industrial regions as the Urals and Siberia. Programs are being introduced to solve environmental problems, to save energy in the country and to process toxic waste.
To resolve environmental issues in Russia, multicomponent solutions are required, ranging from monitoring the situation to finishing the construction of factories that process all waste into the necessary raw materials for the country.
Ecological problems in Ukraine
Since 2011, environmental problems in Ukraine have become of great concern to both ecologists and ordinary citizens. The greatest environmental problem is pollution of air, water, and territories.
Every year the quality of water in Ukraine is noticeably deteriorating. First of all, this problem is associated with poor-quality purification of industrial waters, deterioration of utility systems, which is the source of many diseases, such as typhoid fever, hepatitis.
Due to the unfavorable state of the atmosphere and the wrong attitude of enterprises towards environmental policy, in 2013 Ukraine was included in the list of countries with the highest mortality rate due to air pollution.
Today, one of the central environmental problems is the presence of a large amount of unprocessed waste and household waste in the country. Only one Kyiv resident per year produces 600-700 kilograms of garbage that is not recycled or incinerated.
The animal and plant world of Ukraine was also at risk. Daily monitoring of certain species of plants and animals, which are listed in the Red Book. Their disappearance was the result of poaching, changes in flora and fauna.
Despite the fact that the environment in Ukraine is in a critical state, and environmental problems are only increasing, there has recently been visible progress. For example, it became known that by 2018, the country will launch two garbage processing plants in the Odessa region, where they will apply the technology of its processing, rather than incineration.
Also in 2014, within the framework of the project “Public lobbying for the implementation of EU standards in Ukraine in the field of atmospheric air quality,” seminars were heldThe purpose of which was to interest local authorities in solving environmental problems, reducing air pollution and improving the environmental safety of industries in the country.
According to the results of the activities carried out, there was visible progress
For example, in Mariupol, the project “Program for the Protection and Improvement of the Environment of Mariupol until 2020” was approved, the main task of which is to reduce harmful emissions into the atmosphere by 45%.
Technogenic accidents and zones of ecological disaster in Russia and Ukraine
Man-made accidents are directly related to human industrial activity, during which harmful emissions into the atmosphere occur. This may include fires and accidents with the release of chemicals, accidents in utility systems, industrial facilities, etc.
Below is a table of the most famous man-made disasters in Russia and Ukraine:
|A country||City||Year||Name of the accident||Accident consequences|
Excess phosphorus levels were not detected. 152 people were hospitalized.
|Sverdlovsk||2013||Fire at Uglegorskaya TPP||Increasing the level of toxic concentrates in food products, the release of heavy metals into the atmosphere.Killed 1 person, 5 hospitalized.|
|Gorlovka||2013||Emission of ammonia on "Styrene"||Permissible ammonia concentrations are not exceeded. 6 people died, 25 were hospitalized.|
|Chernobyl||1986||Destruction of the 4th NPP unit||Due to the release of a large amount of radioactive substances around the nuclear power plant, a 30-kilometer exclusion zone was created. The most polluted areas were Russia, Ukraine, Belarus. The accident still affects the health and lives of people.|
|Chernobyl||2015||Fire in the Chernobyl Forest||The possibility of secondary air pollution by radioactive substances.|
|Village Kryachki||2015||Fire at the tank farm near Kiev||The amount of hazardous substances exceeded the permissible concentration limits. 6 people were killed, 15 were injured.|
||Novokuznetsk, Kemerovo Region||2007||Methane explosion at the Ulyanovskaya mine||The level of methane did not exceed the permissible norms. During the accident killed 110 people.|
|The border of Krasnoyarsk Krai and Khakassia||2009||Accident at the Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP||The accident caused the contamination of water areas with oil products and the death of 400 tons of trout. As a result of the accident killed 75 people.|
Rules of human behavior in unfavorable environmental zone
Unfavorable ecological zones, geopathic zones negatively affect human health. Due to a long stay in such places, a person begins to experience negative changes in the body, there are health problems, such as: sleep disturbance, fatigue, weakness, headaches, chills, allergies, blood disorders, heart problems.
In order to protect yourself and your family, it is enough to familiarize yourself with some rules of behavior in adverse areas.
- Taking vitamins that contain antioxidants. First of all, these are vitamins of group B, A, C.
- Windows are best kept closed if the wind blows from an industrial area.
- Bathe only where the water quality is checked and the appropriate signs are installed.
- It is necessary to use boiled water, as in the composition of raw water there may be pathogens that can cause dysentery and cholera. To avoid the entry of pathogens into the body, water must be poured into glass containers and allowed to stand for three hours. Another effective way is to use a filter, as the activated carbon contained in it promotes quality water purification.
- In the modern world, due to the pollution of water and the atmosphere, the chemicalization of the soil, the amount of nitrates in vegetables and fruits is increasing. To avoid the ingestion of such poisons into the body, it is necessary to thoroughly wash and peel them from the fruit.
- The air that a person breathes in adverse areas can also have a negative impact. As a result of environmental studies, it was found that the air in residential premises is 4-6 times dirtier than street air and 8-10 times more toxic. This is due to the presence of linoleum, varnishes, paints, furniture, which includes synthetic polymers, etc. Therefore, it is often necessary to ventilate the room, but only if there are no industrial facilities nearby.
- It is also necessary to place indoor plants in your house that absorb toxins and are an effective means of air purification.
In the XXI century, the planet is on the verge of ecological catastrophe due to environmental problems, and everything possible must be done to save the Earth.