What is the building function of proteins?
Proteins are the basis of the existence of a living cell. They make up most of its elements. The building function of proteins lies in their presence in many organs and tissues of a person. Most dense substances consist of proteins. For example, muscles, supporting tissues, nails, hair.
Proteins are high-molecular compounds. For example, the protein molecule is several hundred times larger than the water molecule. Any protein substance is formed by compounds called amino acids. They are arranged in a strict order, following one after another, forming a long chain, called peptide. The chemical and biological properties of the protein are determined by the amino acids located in it. All functions performed by them are very important for living organisms, and one of them, the building function of proteins, is at the basis of the existence and development of all living things.
Properties of proteins
Research scientists have shown that the physical and chemical properties of protein are determined by the amino acids present in it, their number and sequence of compounds.
- insoluble and water-soluble;
- Unstable, changing under insignificant influence on them, and stable.
There are in the form:
- long filaments;
- compounds of small spherical molecules.
However, with such a different structure of the propertyproteins strictly meet the functions they perform. For example, proteins in the form of filaments are present in the muscles, since they are endowed with the ability to contract. Proteins are readily soluble, with the structure of the molecule from small balls, perform the functions of transportation. As a catalyst, proteins with an easily variable structure are used.
Functions of proteins
Each organic substance, being in the body, performs certain functions. Let us consider what functions that ensure the vital activity of a person, perform protein:
- Building.The protein is used in the formation of shells andcell membranes, in the composition of blood vessels, tendons. The building function of proteins, (examples described in the article) is fully manifested in such organs and tissues as skin, hair, nails, etc.
- The motor.
- Catalytic.In the human body, there are always different chemical reactions. Regulate the speed of their passage of enzymes, which consist of proteins.
- Transport. Proteins carry over the body and all tissues of vital substances. For example, the protein hemoglobin carries oxygen.
- Protective.The immune system produces antibody proteins likea reaction to harmful foreign microorganisms trapped inside the body. Proteins-antibodies block the attack of harmful substances. Also, there are blood proteins - fibrinogen, which can prevent the body from losing blood by forming a clot (folding of blood).
- Hormonal.Hormones are responsible for maintaining equilibrium in the body, regulate metabolism, with most of them composed of proteins or polypeptides.
- Nutritious.For example, the protein casein is present in breast milk and is responsible for the saturation of the baby.
The building function of a protein is one of the main functions that are responsible for the normal functioning of the organism.
The amount of proteins in the human body
The presence of proteins in each living cell isnot less than half of its dry weight. In general, there are only twenty amino acids in the composition of all proteins, with different protein compounds differing by the number of repeats and the sequence of compounds. Depending on this, proteins also perform different functions, one of which is necessary for the continuation of life - the building function of proteins.
Proteins are distributed throughout the body differently.Protein to weight ratio of dry tissue
|Organs, tissues||% of protein to the mass of dry tissue|
Building function of proteins
Where is it carried out? In the human body, the creation of new cells and the restoration of destroyed tissues is impossible without the presence of protein. He also participates in the synthesis of juices of digestion, is a part of immune bodies, hormones. The protein also fulfills the energy function: at high physical loads it is necessary to receive it to maintain the balance of nutrients in the body.
One of the basic functions of protein is building. If the protein stops doing it, the living organism can not exist. How does the building function of proteins manifest themselves? Examples of proteins and their effect on the organism of living beings are below:
- Keratin- protein, which consists of hair, nails; in animals - wool, horns, hooves. Depending on the set of amino acids, it can be soft and flexible, or it can be tough and strong.
- Collagen- is present in the tendons and cartilage, its fibers do not stretch, so the muscular effort is directed to the bones to which the muscles are attached.
- Elastin- protein, the strength of which is not very high, while it has good elasticity, it can easily stretch under pressure. It is located in the walls of blood vessels.
Protein in cell skeletons
The building function of the protein manifests itself both in the structure of the organism and in the cells - the proteins create an internal cytoskeleton.
There are three types of cell skeleton:
Microtubules- these are tubules, consisting of protein tubulin. With their help, the components of the cell are carried along it.
Microfilamentsconsist of an actin protein. They create a small continuous mesh under the outer membrane of the cell, thus making it resilient and durable.
The presence of a certain type of protein in the intermediatefilamentsis determined by the cells in which they are located. Based on the research, it is believed that the filaments give the cell strength.
Amino acids are a bond of carbon, hydrogen,oxygen and nitrogen and (sometimes) sulfur. Amino acids there are more than 100 species, however, only 20 are present in humans. Some of them are produced by the body itself, while others need to be obtained from food.
Amino acids are divided into three types:
- Replaceable- their body synthesizes itself.
- Irreplaceable- are obtained from food products.
- Conditionally-interchangeable- amino acids, which can be synthesized by the body, but this requires the presence of a certain number of other amino acids.
Importance of amino acids
The presence in the body of a basic set of amino acidsnecessarily, because their shortcomings will affect the violations of the functionality of those bodies for which they are responsible. For example, a deficiency of lysine in the blood provokes a decrease in the level of hemoglobin, which has a detrimental effect on the state of human health.
One amino acid is called a peptide, the bond of 3-100 amino acids is a small protein. Proteins can consist of 100-800 consecutively linked amino acids.
So, the building function of proteins is whereis carried out? It can be manifested at the cellular level and in the structure of the human body. Protein receptors are contained both in the cytoplasm and in the cell membrane. Existing motor proteins function to provide the motor function of the body, for example, participate in contraction of muscles, movement of cells.
The building function of proteins is that the proteins are present in the cell membranes, form the skeleton cells, are part of the ribosomes, chromosomes and other vital formations.
Protein pathway for building function
The protein that fulfills the building function passes throughown way. For example, the path that passes the protein, which got into the body from food, is the following. From food, it enters the stomach, where it is split into amino acids. After that, they are absorbed by the intestinal mucosa and enter the liver, from which they spread to all organs and tissues of the body to provide protein synthesis. The building function of proteins is manifested in the fact that they participate in all vital processes of the body.
To continue life, a person needs toin his cells constantly passed various chemical reactions. And one of the main roles is performed by proteins, thanks to which the development and functioning of the organism is carried out.
The building function of proteins is manifested inthe formation of new cells and the regeneration of old ones. For regeneration, it is necessary to have the necessary amount of protein, so that it is enough to replace worn out cells.
Large wear of tissues and cells is observed inpeople leading a sport lifestyle. Therefore, they need to consume food rich in protein. This also applies to those engaged in mental activities.
Proteins are able to bind water, formingcolloidal structures. It can be said that life is the process of the existence of proteins, their interrelations with the environment. If this process stops, the life of a living organism will end.