What are the types of bullet shooting?
The history of bullet shooting has rather long roots. Competitions on the accuracy of hitting the “apple” are counted from the invention of light firearms: guns and pistols.
Initially, standard models appeared that were in service with armies, then special sports weapons adapted for training and competitions in shooting galleries and clubs. By the 90s of the XIX century. Bullet shooting in many countries has become very popular. For example, at the first Olympics in 1896 in Athens, five medals fell on the shooting sport. A year later, the first world shooting championship took place in Lyon.
In the twentieth century. This sport has undergone many changes in connection with the modernization of weapons. His arsenal has not changed for a long time, it consists of rifles (large-caliber, pneumatic and small-caliber), pistols (small-caliber, pneumatic and revolver-pistol).
By the way, rifle shooting is one of the components of biathlon.
It is subdivided into shooting from a pistol, rifle, shooting from a rifle at a moving target. It is made by a bullet from a rifle: pneumatic (4.5 mm), small-caliber (5.6 mm) and large-caliber (6.5 mm-7.62 mm for rifles and 7.62-9.65 mm for pistols).
Targets are printed by typographical means on a dense material of white or cream color. When a bullet penetrates, such a target retains the shape of a bullet hole without excessively gross distortions and gaps along the edges of the hole.
Now all the major international competitions are held on electronic target installations, defining the dignity of a hole in an acoustic, optical or combined way. Annually competitions in bullet shooting are held at various levels: from regional tournaments to World and European Championships. Currently, the rules of the International Shooting Federation (ISSF) for shooting bullets include 15 men's and 9 women's exercises, which are included in the programs of international competitions.
The compulsory Olympic program includes 6 men's exercises and 4 women's. In the framework of the Shooting Union of Russia competitions are held on 46 exercises.The official documents of the ISSF and the protocols of the results of international competitions use short names of exercises, including the firing distance, the type of weapon and the number of shots (for example: “50 m. Arbitrary rifle. 3x40 shots”).
For each exercise, an abbreviation is introduced - two letters and numbers. Letters indicate the type of weapon (VP - air rifle; MV - small-caliber rifle; AV - (army) standard large-caliber rifle; PV - arbitrary large-caliber rifle; PP - air pistol; MP - small-caliber pistol; RP - large-caliber pistol (central combat revolver)) , and the numbers are the ordinal number of this exercise in the national sporting classification for bullet shooting.
Types of shooting
As already known, bullet shooting is made from a pistol, rifle and at a moving target.
Rifles for sports shooting exercises are divided by type: pneumatic (caliber - 4.5 mm), small-caliber (caliber - 5.6 mm) and large-caliber (caliber - from 6.5 mm to - 7.62 mm). Rifles of all types must be single-shot (except for large-caliber standard rifles that may have a magazine). The distance from the line of fire to the line of the target is from 10 to 300 meters.
For rifle shooting, the positions are “lying”, “from the knee” or “standing”.
Position "lying": the athlete lies on the ground or a special rug, leaning his elbows. The weapon must be held with two hands and the right shoulder (for the left-handed athlete, the left). While aiming, the cheek arrow can be pressed against the rifle butt. The forearms are clearly separated from the rug. The forearm of the left hand supporting the rifle must form an angle of at least 30 degrees with the firing position surface. It is allowed to use a rifle belt.
Position "from the knee": the athlete sits on a bent leg, under the rise of which a cushion is placed. The foot of the front foot, the knee and the toe of the other foot - on the ground or on the rug. The weapon is held with two hands and the right shoulder. The elbow of the left hand holding the rifle must rest on the left knee and cannot be shifted from the patella more than 100 mm forward or 150 mm back. It is allowed to use a rifle belt.
The standing position: the athlete is standing. The arms are held in two hands, with the right shoulder, cheek, and part of the chest near the right shoulder. Butt rests on the opposite arm shoulder.Do not use a rifle belt.
To prepare for the exercise, athletes are given at least 10 minutes. The use of special shooting suits and boots is allowed. Prohibited the use of optical sights, but it is possible to use a lens that corrects vision.
Pistols for sports shooting exercises by type are divided into pneumatic, small-caliber and large-caliber (revolver). Air guns of 4.5 mm caliber, operating on compressed air or compressed gas, and rechargeable when firing with only one pellet are allowed.
All bullets for air pistols should be made of lead or similar soft material. Small caliber pistols - 5.6 mm caliber chambered for side fire. Large-caliber pistol (central combat revolver) - caliber from 7.62 to 9.65 mm.
Pistols and revolvers are only fired while standing, holding the weapon in a free hand. In speed exercises, the competition rules impose a special requirement on the manufacture before starting the exercise: the arm with the weapon must be tilted down at an angle of at least 45 ° to the direction of shooting.
When carrying out the exercise, the shooter must be on the shooting site (firing position) assigned to him, not moving beyond the front line of the line of fire and not relying on anything during firing. Before the start of the exercise, the shooters are given time to prepare, depending on the type of exercise. Prohibited the use of optical sights, but it is possible to use a lens that corrects vision.
Shooting at a moving target
Shooting at a moving target is conducted from single shot rifles. For shooting at 50 m used small-caliber rifle (caliber 5.6 mm) chambered side fire. For shooting at 10 m - air rifle (caliber 4.5 mm), operating on compressed air or gas.
The use of scopes is allowed. At 50 m, the multiplicity of the sight is not limited, at 10 m the multiplicity is limited (4 krat). The use of special shooting jackets is allowed. For shooting at 50 m, the “Running boar” target is used with a painted boar silhouette and a target located in the middle of the body.
For shooting at 10 m, a target is used, as for firing from an air rifle, but with aiming points on the left and right (electronic target), or a paper target with an aiming point between two targets.
Targets move alternately from right to left and from left to right, passing open space - the "window". The passage of the target "window" is called mileage. The target should go through the “window” with a slow run - in 5 seconds, with a quick run - in 2.5 seconds. In each run, only one shot is performed.
In each half of the exercise, in front of the test runs, the shooter is provided with 4 test runs - 2 on the right and left side of the movement. In trial runs, the target moves at the same speed as in the subsequent test series. Shooting at moving targets is done only from the “standing” position and comes off the shot, and before the target appears in the run window, the butt of the weapon should be near the belt.
Where there is still need for concentration and the ability to hit the target accurately, it’s in billiards.
The benefits of bullet shooting
If for representatives of speed-strength sports physical training is leading in the process of training, then bullet shooting makes in this sense limited requirements, designed for the optimal development of special physical qualities such as coordination and static endurance.
Shooting exercises produce high emotional stability, since at the right time the shooter must be able to focus, disconnect from the surroundings, suppress involuntarily arising thoughts that are not related to the work being done.
Bullet shooting plays a certain role both in the physical and in the moral, moral and volitional development of man. When a person engages in bullet shooting, such qualities as attention, memory, emotional stability, thinking and volitional efforts develop.