What are the basic rules of the game of billiards?
The game of balls is one of those about which there is historical information from ancient times. Many researchers tend to think that the game of balls, which existed in ancient times in Asia, is the basis of modern billiards.
Historically it is known that in the Middle Ages, Chinese merchants brought a simple ball game to England. And the British, having improved it, became the founders of modern billiards.
At that time, the British were playing in Pall-Mall, the essence of the game was to move a few balls on a rammed earthen area. In favor of the fact that the world is obliged to play billiards in England, says the origin of the word - from the English ball (ball) and yeard (stick).
And even the great Shakespeare in one of his plays mentions that Cleopatra played billiards with her eunuch Mardyan. However, there are also such researchers and historians who refute such theories.
Perhaps the moment of the occurrence of billiards would be more appropriately attributed to the historical period when the balls were moved using cue-like devices on a flat surface raised above the floor or the ground.Therefore, there is another version: as if billiards originated in France, since the first mention of the billiard table was found in the inventory of King Louis XI and dates back to 1470.
The first players in billiards were crowned persons and noble grandees of Western Europe. Exactly for them was available an expensive pool table and a large hall for it. There is historical evidence that in 1588 Mary Stuart, the queen of Scotland, who was imprisoned, spent a lot of time playing billiards.
An important stage in the development of billiards is its distribution to other social strata of the population. This development billiards received during the reign of the French rabbits Louis XIII and Louis XIV.
The business people of that era became interested in playing billiards, and began to equip public billiard halls. The state was also interested in the fact that billiard tables were installed in public places, because it brought income to the treasury in the form of taxes. So billiards walked around Europe with confident steps.
Extremely fond of playing billiards Louis XIV. He was proud to be so well controlled with balls and very graceful at the same time.The king was considered a very good player in billiards, and his constant partner was Shamilyar, who also had the fame of a very strong player.
Shamilyar deliberately lost to the king, but sometimes he won. They say that it was thanks to billiards that Shamilyar made a brilliant career, from clerk to minister of war.
From Western Europe, the game of billiards gradually moved to more eastern countries, including Russia. And since the beginning of colonization, billiards has reached the colonies. However, the spread of billiards in the colonies did not occur as quickly as in Europe. For example, America was discovered by Columbus in 1492, and the spread of billiards in America occurred more than two hundred years after the legendary discovery.
Who and in what country the first to actually come up with billiards will probably remain a mystery. Yes, it probably does not matter. It is important that this wonderful, smart and gambling game is so loved by many today.
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General rules of Russian billiards
Russian billiards has about forty varieties.In our country it has long existed semi-legally, no competitions have been officially held. In each city and in each billiard room they played in their own way. After the creation of the Billiard Sports Federation in the late 1980s, it became necessary to unify the rules of the game, to work out a unified system for holding tournaments and refereeing.
The rules of the game of three traditional types - the “Russian” and “Moscow” pyramids, as well as the “American women” were summarized. The rules of the game and the time of the Russian billiards competition were officially approved by the National Billiard Sports Federation in 1994.
Let's talk about the rules
Hit on the cue ball.It should be made by the front part of the cue sticker in the direction of its longitudinal axis, with at least one foot of the player must touch the floor. Performing a strike in any other way is penalized.
The drawing of the initial strike.The right to the first strike in a meeting is determined as a result of a rally. Located on opposite sides of the longitudinal line of the table, the players simultaneously make blows from their hands from home, directing their cues to the back board. The winner is the player whose ball, reflected from it, stops closer to the front.
The draw is automatically lost if the cue ball did not touch the back side, went to half the opponent, fell into the pocket or jumped overboard. If the rules violated both opponents or both of the cue ball stopped at the same distance from the side, the rally is repeated.
The winner of the rally has the right to either make the initial blow himself or to yield to his opponent. In subsequent batches, the order is respected. Before the last decisive game the rally repeats again.
Ball arrangement.Before the start of the game, fifteen aiming balls with the help of a triangle are installed close to each other in the shape of a pyramid with the top at the back mark and the base parallel to the short board.
The initial blow ("from the hand and from the house").When performing this blow, it is forbidden to carry the body beyond the continuation of the outer side of the long side, and also to position the cue ball behind the line of the house. The cue ball is considered to be entered into the game after hitting it with a cue sticker. When playing with hands, balls played in opposite corners, as well as fallen as a result of this blow into other pockets, are counted.
The blow from the hand is also made in other cases specified by these rules, for example, the cue-ball fell into a pocket or jumped overboard (Russian Pyramid, Moskovskaya).In this case, it is permitted to strike a blow only on balls located outside the house. If all the object balls are located in the house, then the blow is made from the opposite side of the table, which in this case serves as a temporary house, bounded by the back line.
Played balls.Balls are considered to be played (hammered) if they fall into the pockets as a result of the correct blow. The ball reflected from the pocket on the playing surface of the table remains in the game.
An object ball, which fell into a pocket as a result of its deliberate rolling on the board, is not counted and is set in accordance with the rules of a particular game, and no penalty is imposed.
Jumped balls.The balls that stopped after hitting outside the playing surface of the table (on board, on the floor, etc.) are considered to jump overboard.
The ball remains in the game if it hits a fixed billiard affiliation (top of the board, pocket bracket, lighting fixture, etc.) and returns to the playing surface on its own.
If the ball touches any other object (cue, chalk, clothes, etc.) outside the table, it is considered to have jumped out even if it then returns to the playing surface again.Jumping goal balls are placed after the completion of the strike in accordance with the rules of each particular game. In this case, the penalty is not imposed, but correctly scored balls are counted.
If a cue ball jumps out overboard, the player is penalized, and scored balls do not count. When playing in the "American" cue ball is exposed on a common basis. When playing in the “Moscow” and “Russian” pyramids, the opponent entering the game produces a blow with a hand from the house.
Ball setting. All incorrectly scored and jumped balls are set in accordance with the rules of each particular game. All exposed balls are considered sighting.
The position of the ball. It is determined by the position of the center ball. A ball that is exactly on the line of the house is considered to be located outside the house.
Start and end strike. The kick starts from the moment the cue stick gets in contact with the cue ball and ends when all the balls on the table surface are completely stopped. A rotating ball is considered to be moving.
A blow to a close-up aiming ball (no more than 1/2 of the ball's radius), also located close to the cue ball, should be performed on cutting at an angle of 45 ° or more away from the center line or so that the cue ball stops in place after the collision or went away,without crossing the lines of the penalty area. A player is penalized for making a wrong strike.
The entry into the game opponent. The opponent enters the game after as a result of the previous strike no ball was played or a violation of the rules took place.
Fines Fines are imposed in the following cases:
- if the cue ball didn’t touch any of the aiming balls on impact;
- if, after a strike, the cue-ball jumped overboard;
- if another blow is made before the end of the previous blow;
- if, when performing a beat on the cue ball, none of the legs of the player touch the floor;
- when touching any ball on the playing surface of the table before, during or after hitting with a cue, a machine, a hand, clothes, etc .;
- for making an improper hitting the cue ball;
- with improper impact on a near-aiming ball;
- for performing a blow with a propich on the object ball, which is more than 1/2 the radius of the ball from the cue ball, when the player excessively tightens the contact time of the cue stick with the cue ball and pushes the cue ball and the object ball simultaneously;
- when double hitting, when the cue sticker touches the cue ball twice;
- for performing a pressure hit when the cue ball squeezes the object ball from the side;
- if a cue ball hits a target ball in the house when it is struck from the hand;
- when striking not a cue ball (“Russian pyramid” and “Moscow pyramid”);
- when the cue ball falls into the pocket (“Russian pyramid”);
- with the wrong wagering ("American");
- if, when striking from the hand from home, the player, despite the judge’s warning, brings the cue ball out of the line of the house, puts the body behind the continuation of the outer side of the long side or blows from the opposite side of the table;
- when interfering with an opponent's game.
If during the execution of one strike several violations of the rules were committed, then the penalty will be charged in a single amount. Balls scored with violations of the rules are not counted and are set in accordance with the rules of each particular game.
Hanging balls. If the ball hovering over the pocket in the position of unstable equilibrium remains stationary for five seconds or more after the blow is completed and then falls into the pocket, the judge restores it to its original place and the game continues.
The same is done in the event that the hanging ball falls into the pocket after an obvious jolt or shake of the billiard table.If a hovering ball falls into a pocket before the expiration of five seconds after the completion of a strike, then it is considered to have fallen into a pocket as a result of the strike and the game continues on a common basis.
If a player hits a cue ball on a frozen aiming ball, and the latter falls into a pocket before the collision, the judge restores the starting position and the strike is repeated, and no penalty is imposed.
“Deaf” position. If the balls were grouped near one of the pockets and the pocket was blocked, as well as in other cases, when after a long series of wagering the position on the table does not fundamentally change, which leads to unjustified delay of the game, the judge, after warning the players, has the right to place the remaining on the table, aiming balls in the shape of a pyramid (shortened pyramid) with the top at the back mark, the right of the subsequent strike is determined by the draw and the game continues from the hand from home.
The intervention of an outsider.If during the game the balls come into motion as a result of the intervention of an unauthorized person (directly or by any impact on the player performing the strike), then the referee restores the starting position and the strike is repeated, and no penalty is imposed.
The same is done when any extraordinary circumstances arise: a gust of wind, a falling light, an accident, etc. If an outsider intervenes in the game deliberately, the game is suspended until he leaves the competition venue.
The intervention of the opponent. If the opponent of the player touches, shifts or stops a ball, he will be penalized, the position will be restored by the judge and the game will continue. If, at the same time, the opponent delays the played ball moving towards the pocket, the ball is considered to be played, and the player makes the subsequent blow.
Interference is also considered to be any opponent’s actions aimed at distracting the player’s attention and creating interference with him when making a strike. If the opponent intervenes deliberately in the game, the judge will act according to the “Unsportsmanlike conduct” section.
Deliberately pulling the game. If the player, in the opinion of the judge, deliberately delays the game, the judge after the warning has the right to impose a one-minute temporary restriction on the preparation and execution of the kick.
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What is the use of the game?
Many people think that billiards is just a game that does not benefit and is nothing more than a pleasant pastime. But in reality this is not at all the case.
It is very difficult to find another game in which, just like in billiards, both physical and mental abilities are required of the player. Therefore, we can say that the benefits of playing billiards actually exist. Below we will tell you how this benefit manifests itself.
During the game of billiards everyone needs to constantly move. For example, it can be said with confidence that during one game a person can walk about three kilometers around a billiard table, and sometimes even much more.
You could even say that playing billiards is a real walk, only you do not leave the premises and do not notice the distance traveled. In addition to this, we can say that before some sedentary patients, doctors even prescribed billiards as a maintenance of the body.
In addition, the action of the game of billiards on the eyes is very important and useful. It has been proven that during a person’s billiard game a man’s eye is improving, which is also very good.
When you spend time playing a game of billiards, your eyes rest and your eyesight is restored. The game of billiards activates the eye muscles, and the game of billiards can be compared with eye exercises that improve the sharpness of your eyesight.
This happens because during the game you always need to keep track of the balls that are at different distances, in addition, the location of these balls during the game is constantly changing. It is worth noting that most professional billiards players even in old age can boast excellent eyesight.
Also important is the fact that the player is honed coordination of movements. Maybe you did not notice, but people who constantly play billiards move differently - more clearly and smoothly.
Equally important is the effect of billiards on the man’s perseverance - it helps to be more balanced and calm, patient and have a cold mind. You must admit that these qualities are simply necessary with the modern lifestyle.
Billiards helps a person to develop the will to win and dedication. But the game of billiards teaches and adequately accept defeat, without despairing at the same time, without losing faith in our own strength.
Do not forget that the game of billiards - it's just a great vacation. The man who started playing billiards, after a few minutes completely relaxes, the accumulated fatigue and nervous tension disappears.
While playing billiards, a person practically forgets about all the everyday trivialities and plunges headlong into an exciting and interesting game.