Pipe (musical instrument): types, photo
Musical wind instrument trumpet -a representative of devices for sound formation of the alto-soprano register. Among the similar instruments, this one has the highest sound. The pipe was used since ancient times, then it was used as a signal. In the orchestra she came in about the 17th century. After the valve mechanism was invented, the pipe plays the role of a full-fledged instrument for performing classical music. The timbre is bright and shiny. The instrument can be used as a solo artist in the wind and symphony orchestra, in jazz and similar genres.
This tool is one of the most ancient. The first mention of such adaptations arose around 3600 years before our era. Many civilizations used pipes - and Ancient Egypt, and Ancient China, and Ancient Greece, and other cultures used the semblance of pipes as signaling tools. For many centuries this was the main role of this invention.
In the Middle Ages, the troops are compulsorythere were trumpeters who were able to transmit a sound order to other parts that are at a considerable distance from each other. In those days, the trumpet (musical instrument), although not fully performed its functions, yet the game on it was an elite art. Trained this skill is only specially selected people. In tranquil, non-military times trumpeters were obligatory participants of holidays, knight tournaments. In the big cities there were special tower trumpeters signaling the arrival of significant people, changing the time of day, the arrival of enemy troops or other important events.
Shortly before the advent of the Renaissance, newtechnologies have made it possible to produce a more perfect musical instrument. The pipe began to participate in the performances of the orchestra. In addition, trumpeters have become much more virtuosic, learning the art of clarino. This word denotes the transmission of diatonic sounds by means of blowing. The era of baroque can be safely considered "the golden age of a natural pipe." Since the age of classical and romantic, based on all melody, the natural pipe has receded into the background as incapable of reproducing melodic lines. And only for the performance of the main stages of the scale in the orchestra was used a pipe.
The musical instrument received in the middle of 19century mechanism of gates, at first had no well-deserved fame. The reason is that most of the sounds were not yet pure intonation and did not have the same timbre. Increasingly, the transfer of upper voice began to entrust cornet, because its timbre was much softer, and the technical characteristics are more perfect. But at the beginning of the century, when the pipe was improved, the cornetes had to leave the orchestra. Finally the trumpet was able to show all the sounds that are required in the orchestra from the wind instruments. Currently, the party, previously created for the cornets, is performed by the pipe. The musical instrument, the photo of which is attached to the article, was completely able to reproduce the scale, thanks to the maximally improved mechanism.
Today the instrument is used in orchestras when performing music in the ska genres, jazz, funk, and also as a solo artist.
The structure of the pipe
Copper and brass are the materials, of which the mostoften a pipe is made. A musical instrument made of silver or other metals can be found much less often. Even in ancient times, a method of manufacturing from a single sheet of metal was invented.
An interesting form is this musicaltool. The pipe, as it is called due to its shape, the bends of which are actually created only for compactness, is just a long tube. The mouthpiece has a slight narrowing, the socket has an extension. The main length of the tube is cylindrical. It is this form that contributes to the brightness of the timbre. In the manufacturing process, it is extremely important to accurately calculate not only the length, but also the correct extension of the socket - this determines the construction of the instrument. However, the essence remains the same: this musical instrument is a long pipe and only.
The principle of the game is getting harmonic consonancesthe change in the position of the lips and the length of the air column, which is achieved by the mechanism of the valves. Apply three valves, giving the opportunity to tone, one and a half or a half tone to lower the sound. Pressing several gates at the same time allows you to reduce the tooling to three tones. This is the way the chromatic scale is achieved.
There are varieties on which there is a fourth valve, which makes it possible to lower the system by five semitones.
Having high technical mobility, the pipeperfectly performs diatonic passages, arpeggios and so on. Breathing is spent very sparingly, so it is possible to perform phrases of a long length and a bright timbre.
Valve trills work fine on modern tools.
The most popular type is the trumpet in the B-flat,which sounds a tone lower than the notes written for it indicate. Currently, notes are written from the small octave to the third octave, but it's still possible to extract higher sounds from the instrument. The modern design of the pipe makes it possible for her to perform all the necessary tonalities, extremely rarely turning to the American favorite pipe in the line up.
In addition, these days there are three more types of pipes, very common earlier.
The Alto trumpet is a musical instrument,called to sound almost on a quart below the written notes. This tool is necessary for the transfer of low-register sounds (for example - Rachmaninov's Third Symphony). However, now this pipe is used rarely, most often it is replaced by flugelgorn.
Bass tube - musical instrument, photowhich is easy to detect in any music school, sounds below the usual pipe by an octave. In this case, for a greater nona below the proposed notes. It was used until the second half of the 20th century. Now it is successfully replaced with a trombone - similar in structure, register and timbre.
Piccolo pipe. Designed in the late 19th century, but today is experiencing a new wave of popularity due to interest in ancient music. Apply in the style of B flat, while for sharp tonalities can be reconstructed and in the building la. It has four valves, not three, like a large pipe. A musical instrument is used with a smaller mouthpiece, but this affects the technical mobility and timbre.
Although modern pipes that can fulfillwithout limitation, melodic lines, arose relatively recently, written a huge number of solo works that were created for these instruments. Today they are performed on a small (piccolo) trumpet. For the pipe, many famous composers wrote: Haydn, Weinberg, Blacher, Shchedrin, Bach, Molter, Mozart, Beethoven, Brahms, Mahler, Mussorgsky, Rimsky-Korsakov and many other equally great composers.