MSU main building: construction history
Erection in 1949-1953 The main building of Moscow State University on the Lenin (Vorobyovy) mountains was one of the largest constructions of the post-war USSR. Before the advent of Triumph Palace, the building was the highest administrative building in Moscow, and before construction in 1990, Messeturma in Frankfurt was also the tallest building in Europe. Height - 182 m, with a spire - 240 m, number of floors of the central building - 36.
1. Pupils of the school for working youth against the background of the main building of Moscow State University (1951)
2. In 1948, members of the Central Committee of the party in charge of science received a task from the Kremlin: to work out the question of building a new building for Moscow State University. They prepared a memorandum together with the Rector of the University - Academician A.N. Nesmeyanov, offering to build a high-rise for the "temple of Soviet science". From the Central Committee, the papers moved to the Moscow authorities. Soon Nesmeyanov and a representative of the “scientific” department of the Central Committee were invited to the city party committee: “Your idea is unrealistic. You need too many elevators for skyscrapers.Therefore, the building should be no higher than 4 floors. ”
3. A few days later, Stalin held a special meeting on the “university issue”, and he announced his decision: to erect a building no less than 20 floors high for the Moscow State University atop the Lenin Mountains — so that it could be seen from afar.
4. The project of the new university building was prepared by the famous Soviet architect Boris Iofan, who invented the skyscraper of the Palace of Soviets. However, several days before the “top” approval, all the architect’s drawings were removed from this work. The creation of the largest of the Stalin skyscrapers was entrusted to a group of architects headed by L.V. Rudnev.
5. The reason for such an unexpected replacement is Iofan’s obstinacy. He was going to build the main building right above the cliff of the Lenin Mountains. But by the autumn of 1948, experts had managed to convince Stalin that such a huge facility location was fraught with catastrophe: the area is dangerous in terms of the occurrence of landslides, and the new University will simply slip into the river! Stalin agreed on the need to transfer the main building of Moscow State University away from the edge of the Lenin Hills, but Iofan did not like this option at all, and he was removed.Rudnev moved the building 800 meters deep into the territory, and on the spot chosen by Iofan created a viewing platform.
6. In the original draft version it was supposed to crown a high-rise sculpture of impressive size. The character on the sheets of paperman was depicted abstract - the figure of a man with his head up to heaven and his arms spread wide apart. Apparently, such a posture should symbolize a craving for knowledge. Although the architects, showing the drawings to Stalin, hinted that the sculpture could get a portrait resemblance to the leader. However, Stalin ordered to build a spire instead of a statue so that the upper part of the Moscow State University building looked like the other six high-rise buildings under construction in the capital.
7. The solemn ceremony of laying the first stone of the MSU high-rise building took place on April 12, 1949, exactly 12 years before the flight of Gagarin.
8. In reports from the shock construction on the Lenin Hills, it was reported that 3000 Komsomol-Stakhanovists were building a high-rise. However, in reality, many more people worked here. Especially “under the university” at the end of 1948, the Ministry of Internal Affairs prepared an order for the early release from camps of several thousand prisoners with building specialties. These cons were to spend the remainder of the term on the construction of Moscow State University.
9.In the GULAG system there was “Construction-560”, transformed in 1952 into the Department of the ITL of the Special District (the so-called “Stroylag”), whose contingent was engaged in the construction of a university high-rise. The construction was supervised by General Komarovsky, Head of the Main Directorate of Industrial Construction Camps. The number of prisoners in Stroylag reached 14,290 people. Almost all of them sat on “everyday” articles, and they were afraid to take “political” to Moscow. The zone with watchtowers and barbed wire was built a few kilometers from the “object”, near the village of Ramenki, in the area of the present Michurinsky Avenue.
10. When the construction of the high-rise building was coming to an end, it was decided “to bring the places of residence and work of prisoners as close as possible”. The new camp was equipped right on the 24th and 25th floors of the tower under construction. Such a decision made it possible to save on protection: there is no need for watchtowers or barbed wire — there is still no place to go.
11. As it turned out, the guards underestimated their sponsored contingent. Among the prisoners was a craftsman who, in the summer of 1952, made some kind of hang-glider out of plywood and wire and ... He interprets further events in different ways.According to one version, he managed to fly to the other side of the Moscow River and safely escaped. According to another, it was still shot by the guards. There is an option with a happy completion of this story: allegedly the “flyer” was already seized by security officers on the ground, but when Stalin became aware of his act, he personally ordered the brave inventor to let go ... It was even possible that there were two winged fugitives. At least, this is what the freelance high-rise builder, who himself saw two people planning from a tower on improvised wings, claimed. According to him, one of them was shot down, and the second one flew off in the direction of Luzhniki.
12. Another unique story is connected with the unique “high-altitude camp zone”. This incident was even considered then as an attempt to assassinate the leader of the nations. One day, vigilant guards, checking the territory of Stalin’s “near-dacha” in Kuntsevo, suddenly discovered a rifle bullet on the track. Who shot? When? Trouble was serious. We conducted a ballistic examination and found out that the unfortunate bullet flew ... from the University under construction. In the course of further investigation, the picture of the incident became clear.At the next guard change, guarding the prisoners, one of the guards, handing over the post, pulled the trigger of the rifle, in the barrel of which turned out to be a live cartridge. A shot rang out. According to the law of meanness, the weapon was turned in the direction of a government facility in the distance, and the bullet still “reached” the Stalin dacha.
13. The main building of Moscow State University immediately broke many records. The height of the 36-storey high-rise reaches 236 meters. The steel frame of the building required 40 thousand tons of steel. And the construction of walls and parapets took almost 175 million bricks. The spire has a height of about 50 meters, and its crowning star weighs 12 tons. On one of the side towers, the champion clock is installed - the biggest in Moscow. The dials are made of stainless steel and have a diameter of 9 meters. The hands of the clock are also very impressive. The minute, for example, is twice as long as the minute hand of the Kremlin chimes and has a length of 4.1 meters and weighs 39 kilograms.
14. View from the building of Moscow State University, 1952.
15. The private sector in the vicinity of the construction site.
17. Locals subject to relocation.
18. Before the grand opening of the "temple of science" on September 1, 1953, Stalin did not live for several months.Had he lived a little longer, and the Moscow State University would have replaced the “named after M.V. Lomonosov "-" named after I.V. Stalin. " Plans for such a renaming took place. Vasilievich’s shift on Vissarionovich was going to be timed to coincide with the commissioning of the new corps on the Lenin Hills. In winter, the 53rd already prepared letters for the new name of the university, which were supposed to be installed above the cornice of the main entrance to the high-rise building. But Stalin died, and the project remained unfulfilled.
19. There are many myths about the main building of Moscow State University. So there is a version that in front of the meeting room of the Academic Council (Rector's office) on the 9th floor there are four columns of solid jasper, which allegedly survived the demolition of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior, which is a myth, since there were no jasper columns in the destroyed Temple.
20. Sometimes a rumor is mentioned that the materials of the destroyed Reichstag, in particular rare pink marble, were used to decorate the interior of the building. In fact, in GZ there is either white or red marble. However, it is a known fact that the building of the Faculty of Chemistry is equipped with captured German hoods, which indirectly confirms the use of materials of Germanic origin in the construction.
21.Outwardly it seems that the spire, as well as the star crowning it and the ears of gold, are covered with gold, but this is not so. The spire, star, and ears are not covered with gold - under the influence of wind and precipitation, gilding will quickly become worthless. The spire, the star, and the ears are lined with yellow glass plates, the inner side of the glass plates is covered with aluminum. Currently, part of the glass parts has collapsed and crumbled, if you look through binoculars, it is clear that there are gaps in different places.