Gothic - an epoch in the development of the medievalEuropean art, which began in 1140 in the Ile de France (Paris and the region surrounding it) and lasted until about 1500-1550, giving way to the Renaissance. The most vividly Gothic style was manifested in architecture and stained-glass windows, but also in sculpture, painting, frescoes, illuminated manuscripts.
One of the most outstanding examples of style is the Notre Dame de Paris (Notre-Dame de Paris).
In fact, the architecture of that period appearedthe result of an engineering problem. How to cover through the stone wide surfaces at high altitude? Although most churches of the early Middle Ages had ceilings covered with wood, many buildings had stone semi-cylindrical arches (semicircular arch) or ribs of cross vaults. The walls were necessarily erected very thick, able to withstand external invasions, with small windows - these are features that characterized the Romanesque style.
Gothic style was born, first of all, in architecture, with the construction in 1130 of a church in the abbey of Saint-Denis.
Thanks to the innovative experiments of architects,starting with the 1110s, it was possible to decompose the wall (into component parts) by applying more "mobile" elements in the organization of space - for example, pointed arches, which, unlike the round ones, had smaller side supports, which allowed them to be easily adapted to windows of different widths and height. In addition, a system of stone ribs was developed to distribute the weight of the vault to columns and supports up to the ground, the stone vaults could accordingly be made lighter and thinner.
In the open walls there were large windows. In the 1170s, what is very important, began to appear arkbutans (an external retaining arch, a type of buttresses), strongly associated with the Gothic architecture. The arkbutan system has two key components: a massive vertical masonry block (support) from the outside of the building and a segmental or arched sector that eliminates the gap between the support and the wall.
Gothic style is usually classified according to three main periods: early (or French Gothic), mature (or high Gothic) and late, so-called "flaming" gothic.
The very name "Gothic" (from the Italian word"Gothic" - unusual, barbarous) was given to the culture already in the Renaissance by the architect and art theorist Giorgio Vasari. Thus, he expressed disregard for the style, comparing it with ancient art. Undoubtedly, in today's days the biased assessment of Vasari is not shared by anyone, but the name has become firmly entrenched, gradually naturalized, having lost a negative appeal. In the Renaissance, Gothic art was also referred to as the "German style", a definition also belonging to Vasari.
It should be recognized that due to the productGoethe, dedicated to German architecture, it really was perceived as a national art, as, indeed, in some other countries. This indicated a reassessment and recognition of medieval art.
With growing confidence, architects in the northernFrance, and soon all over Europe, competed in a kind of race for conquering the heights. The summary of each new cathedral, as a rule, should be higher by several meters than its predecessors.
The height of the interior of the cathedral was subordinated to the main Christian idea - the hope of a happy departure from the earthly world into the world of heaven.
Gothic style is in principle definedarchitecture. The sculpture is heavily attached to it, at least in the early stages. On the facades of large churches, especially around the portals, continued to make large tympanums, but around them arranged rows of sculptures.
Outstanding architectural experience was enhanced by the richstained glass windows, sometimes covering the entire height of the building. Decorated with scenes from the Bible, biographies of saints, figures of prophets and other cult figures, the windows of colored glass served as the main motive in the perception of the cathedral as a compendium of the Christian faith. During the thirteenth century, an obligatory feature in most of the cathedrals was the monumental window-the "rose", in which God was represented in the center, Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary surrounded by the Cosmos.
At the end of the 14th century, in anticipation of the Renaissance, the Gothic style acquired some secular features. One of the greatest representatives of this period is Simone Martini.
During the 400-year period of development of Gothicpenetrated into all forms of art. Shamrocks, lancet arches, other architectural ornaments appeared on metal structures, liturgical vessels, tombs, rich spiritual attire, precious diptychs, as well as on secular accessories - furniture, utensils.