10 mysteriously disappeared civilizations
Throughout history, most civilizations either left on their own, or were wiped out by natural disasters. But here are a few civilizations whose disappearance still puzzles scientists.
One of the first Meso-American societies, the Olmecs inhabited the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico. The first traces of the Olmecs, dating back to 1400 BC, were found in the city of San Lorenzo, where the main settlement was located, connected with 2 other centers, Tenochtitlan and Potrero Nuevo. The Olmecs were skilled builders. Ceremonial courtyards, mounds, conical pyramids and stone monuments, including the famous huge head, were located in each important place. Olmec civilization depended on trade both between different Olmec regions and with other Meso-American peoples. Being one of the earliest and most developed Meso-American cultures of the time, the Olmecs are often considered the progenitor of other Meso-American peoples.In 400 g BC the eastern part of the Olmec lands was emptied, possibly due to environmental changes. People could also relocate due to volcanic activity. Another popular theory is that they were captured, but no one can say who.
9. Nabatean kingdom
The Nabataeans are a group of Semitic tribes who inhabited the lands of modern Jordan, Israel, Syria and Saudi Arabia. These tribes are best known for their capital city, Petra. Petra is an amazing city, carved out of a rock with the main pearl of the capital, the Treasury. The wealth of the Nabataeans was accumulated due to the numerous trade routes that passed through their lands. Nabathei sold ivory, silk, spices, precious metals, precious stones, incense and medicines. Greece, Rome, Arabia and Assyria influenced Nabatean culture. Unlike other cultures of the time, there were no slaves in the Nabatean kingdom, and each member of society contributed to the common good. 4 in AD The Nabatae left Peter, and no one knows why. Archaeological finds prove that their relocation was well organized, which suggests voluntary care.The most logical explanation is that when the trade routes on which the Nabatees so depended moved north, this people could no longer live here and left Peter.
8. Axum kingdom
The history of the kingdom of Aksum began in the 1st century AD. on the territory of modern Ethiopia. Aksum was the main trading center exporting ivory, agricultural products and gold to the Roman Empire and India. Due to this, the Aksumites became a very rich people and the first African culture, which had its own monetary system. The most famous monuments of Aksum were stelae, giant stone obelisks. According to local legend, the Jewish queen Judith conquered the kingdom of Aksum and burned its churches and libraries. Other theories include climate change, trade isolation, and hunger.
Mycenae appeared in 1600 BC. in southern Greece. Many ancient Greek myths tell about Mycenae, including the legend of King Agamemnon, who commanded the Greeks during the Trojan War. Mykene had good sea power and used their fleet to trade with other states, as well as for military operations.Due to the lack of natural resources, the Mykene imported many goods, turned them into products for trade, and thus became famous as skilled artisans. No one knows for sure why Mycenae disappeared, but according to one theory this happened because of clashes of different classes. Other theories include the cessation of trade and earthquakes, as well as the invasion of Dorians from the north or the Sea people (migrating from the Balkans to the Middle East).
6. Khmer Empire
The Khmer Empire was located in the territory of modern Cambodia, it originated in 9 AD. and became one of the most powerful powers in Southeast Asia. The Khmer were a very rich culture. Various factors influenced the decline of this civilization. This and the board of various kings, and the construction of trade routes, which facilitated access to the capital conquerors.
5. Tripoli culture
This late Neolithic culture existed from 5500 g to 2750 BC. In their heyday, the tribes of this culture created the largest Neolithic settlements in Europe, some of which included 15,000 people. One of the biggest mysteries of this culture is that every 60-80 years, people burned a whole village and rebuilt it over the old one.They worshiped the great mother goddess, who is a symbol of motherhood and fertility. They also worshiped the bull (strength, fertility, and sky) and the serpent (eternity). According to one of the theories, the Kurgan culture won the Tripoli culture. However, judging by recent archaeological research, the culture was ruined by abrupt climatic changes.
4. Clovis culture
This prehistoric Indian people lived in 10 thousand BC. The tribes resided on the southern and central plains of North America. The main occupation was hunting and gathering, this is confirmed by the findings at the sites of the bones of mammoths, bison, mastodonts and other mammals. There are more than 125 known species of plants and animals used by the people of Clovis. The disappearance of culture is associated with a cooling of the early dryas.
3. Minoan civilization
The culture is named after the mythical king Crete Minos of the owner of the maze, built, according to legend, by Daedalus. In fact, the Minoan culture is the first known civilization in Europe. Today, all that remains of this people are the palaces and artifacts found inside. Many scientists believe that the Minoan civilization was destroyed by a volcanic eruption, but there is evidence that they survived after that.However, the eruption could kill all the flora, leading to famine, as well as damage to ships, thus the culture fell into disrepair.
Anasazi culture, or the ancestors of the pueblo prehistoric Indian culture that existed on the territory of the modern region in the southwestern United States, known as the Four Corners (Colorado, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico). Anasazi culture was characterized by its own style of ceramics and dwellings. Around 1300 g. Pueblo ancestors left their homes. The only reason for moving to places so remote from water and suitable for plowing the earth, scientists believe the attack of enemies. Isolated communities could raid to seize food, and such conflicts were common in the 13th century.
1. Indus (or Harappa) civilization
The Indian or Harappan civilization is one of the three most ancient civilizations of mankind, along with ancient Egyptian and Sumerian. Of all three, it occupied the largest area. In size, it was approximately equal to Egypt, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Iran, Syria, Phenicia and Palestine, taken together. About this civilization, little is known.Monumental construction, bronze metallurgy, and small sculpture were developed among the Indus Dravidians. Private property relations were in the bud, and agriculture was based on irrigation farming. In Mohenjo-Daro, almost the first public toilets known to archeologists, as well as the urban sewage system, were discovered. The fertile soil, high moisture, botanical wealth of the Indus Center contributed to the early development of agriculture, which was the basis of the economy and was complemented by hunting and fishing, and on the coast by sea fishing. The decline of the Indian civilization falls on the XVIIIXVII century BC. er At this time, the majority of the Dravidian population shifts to the south-east (only the ancestors of the Braui people remain in Pakistan) and loses its former level of development. This was probably due to the deterioration of natural conditions. The last attack on the carriers of civilization was probably caused by the Aryan invasion.